Disgaea (魔界戦記ディスガイア, Makai Senki Disugaia, lit. "Hell Chronicles Disgaea") is a series of tactical role-playing video games created and developed by Nippon Ichi. The series debuted in Japan on January 30, 2003, with Disgaea: Hour of Darkness, later re-released as Disgaea: Afternoon of Darkness and Disgaea DS. One of Nippon Ichi's most popular franchises, it has branched off into both a manga and anime series. The Disgaea games take place in a fictional universe called the Netherworld and are known for elements, such as complex gameplay, extremely high maximum stats and humorous dialogue. Main characters in the series often include cynical, power-hungry antiheroes forced to fight alongside heroic foils. The Disgaea series has sold 1.7 million games as of November 2011.